Problems in the comparative study of equipment mai

  • Detail

With the rapid development of China's high-tech weapons and equipment, all kinds of equipment are becoming more and more complex, and the maintenance of equipment has increased by 27.9% year-on-year. The maintenance and support task is also becoming increasingly heavy, and its role and position are becoming more and more prominent in modern high-tech local wars. The establishment of a military civilian integrated equipment maintenance support system is of great practical significance for deepening the reform of national defense and the army. Several local wars in the last century show that the integrated support model has gradually been valued by all countries. The construction of equipment maintenance and support in our army must be based on the current situation of equipment maintenance and support in the army at the current stage, and learn from the experience of foreign troops to explore a road of joint military civilian maintenance and support of equipment with Chinese characteristics [l]

1 characteristics of foreign military equipment maintenance support system

in order to seek a favorable position in the international strategic pattern, some foreign military powers, according to the changes of their own military strategic policies, continue to strengthen the maintenance support of weapons and equipment, adjust the maintenance policies, and there have been some new features and Trends Worthy of attention, which are mainly reflected in the following aspects:

1.1 simplify the maintenance support force

1993, In view of the surplus overhaul force in the military, the US military proposed to retain only the "core" maintenance support force, that is, only the minimum force necessary to ensure the overhaul of weapons and equipment in future operations. According to this principle, the overhaul force has been adjusted and simplified step by step. For example, according to the relevant information of the maintenance department of the U.S. Department of defense, the U.S. military had 38 military overhaul plants in 1998, with 15600 employees, which was reduced to 19 and 89000 in 2001. In the adjustment, attention was also paid to the rationalization of professional division of labor and regional layout

1.2 change the maintenance support mode

the U.S. military's reform of the future logistics support mode is supported by high-tech, accurately grasp the needs of the troops and logistics resources, and provide timely and accurate support to the troops. In terms of maintenance support, we also follow this system: umbrella to improve the battlefield repair ability; widely adopt new detection and diagnosis technology; change the three-level maintenance system to the two-level maintenance system, etc

the Russian army also attaches great importance to improving the rapid response ability of weapons and equipment maintenance, and has taken a lot of measures in terms of maintenance equipment allocation and maintenance personnel training, such as strengthening ningyun capability and giving priority to the development of mobile logistics equipment

1.3 develop the integration of maintenance

1996 the U.S. Army began to implement the reform of "integration, and there is no need to worry about maintenance because of the inability to buy tickets". The purpose of implementing the hierarchical and regional support system is to coordinate and manage the active service forces, reserve forces and local maintenance support forces, and gradually realize rapid support and resource sharing

Russia has established a comprehensive logistics and technical support system to meet the needs of future joint operations of multiple services and arms. The management mode of "joint services" and "leading services" is implemented, and the "joint services" or "leading services" uniformly manage and coordinate the maintenance support forces of the whole army

1.4 increase the investment in equipment maintenance

since the 1990s, the military expenditure of the U.S. military for equipment maintenance has increased significantly. Statistics show that the proportion of equipment maintenance costs in the total equipment costs of the U.S. military increased from 28.9% in the 1980s to 35.6% in the 1990s; The proportion of equipment maintenance expenditure in military expenditure increased from 14% in the 1980s to 14.6% in the 1990s; The ratio of procurement cost to maintenance cost has changed from 1:o.49 in the 1980s to 1:o.91 in the generation of

in the 1990s

in addition, Britain is also constantly strengthening its investment in equipment maintenance funds

1.5 improve the socialization of maintenance support

major military powers in the world are increasingly using the support forces of local departments to continuously expand the scope of non military maintenance. The US military has handed over 28% of its maintenance and support work to non military operations

in recent years, with military enterprises as the core, the Japanese army has established a new equipment maintenance system outside the military, handing over part of the maintenance business of Nanjing and Navy aircraft to local military enterprises, and the maintenance form outside the military is moving towards a diversified development path

2 current situation of our army's equipment maintenance support system

at present, our army's maintenance support system is under the unified leadership of the General Armament Department, which combines the maintenance of the army with the maintenance support of local companies. In general, according to the headquarters (military region, military arms) repair shop Army group (a three-level maintenance system consisting of branch, base repair shop and army repair.

the headquarters repair shop is an equipment maintenance base. In peacetime, it is mainly responsible for the production and repair of various parts and components, so that they can recover quickly in wartime and be put into operational use at the fastest speed.

the group army repair shop is an intermediate link connecting the rear base and the grass-roots maintenance organization of the army. In peacetime, it is mainly responsible for the equipment of the troops directly under the military organ Implement medium maintenance and partial overhaul, strengthen the maintenance support force for lower levels, support lower level maintenance, and provide the highest level of theater level technical support to lower level forces: it is to implement preventive repair of equipment to keep it in good condition all the time

the military maintenance belongs to the grass-roots maintenance site. In peacetime, it is mainly responsible for the maintenance of equipment and the supervision and support personnel to carefully implement the operating procedures, as well as the inspection and minor repair of the weapons and equipment of the affiliated unit. The equipment in defense is invalid in the process of use; in wartime, it is responsible for the replacement and repair of some equipment parts

3 the existing problems of our army's equipment maintenance support system

our army mainly learns from the maintenance support system of the former Soviet Union. Under this system, equipment maintenance support is designed into a huge "big umbrella" system, including equipment maintenance support command, equipment distribution, spare parts allocation and other aspects. With the change of combat style and the improvement of the socialist market economic system, the shortcomings of this system have gradually become prominent, which are mainly manifested in the following aspects:

3.1 the lack of utilization of civilian maintenance capabilities

the planned economy of our military equipment maintenance support system is strong, the lack of effective integration of maintenance support resources inside and outside the military, and the failure to make full use of local maintenance support forces. Under the conditions of modern information-based high-tech war, relying solely on the internal maintenance support force of the army can no longer meet the operational needs of our army. Military equipment maintenance support must be included in local technical support. To achieve this goal, we must make full use of the rich local maintenance support resources especially suitable for molding at high temperature (100 ⑴ 50 ℃). In the process of adjusting the equipment maintenance support system, foreign forces have fully considered the use of local maintenance support forces, and have carried out a series of integration between civilian maintenance support capabilities and military maintenance support capabilities. At present, the "big umbrella" equipment maintenance support system of our army is difficult to achieve this goal

3.2 the efficiency of maintenance support is low and the cost is high.

the current equipment maintenance support mode of our army lacks a favorable competition mechanism. The army monopolizes almost all maintenance support resources, so it cannot realize the optimization of the allocation of various maintenance support resources. The results are:

first, the maintenance cost of various equipment has been increased:

Second, the adverse situation of "three monks have no water to eat" in the era of planned economy has been caused, which greatly reduces the efficiency of equipment maintenance support 13]

3.3 it is difficult to manage and coordinate.

the time of information war is very fast. It is necessary to ensure the high availability of equipment in such a fast time, so it is necessary to implement effective support for battlefield equipment. However, the current equipment maintenance support of our army still maintains the characteristics of unified management. In this way, the management is very responsible, it is not easy to communicate, and it is not conducive to the implementation of rapid maintenance support

3.4 weak joint support capability

at present, although the equipment maintenance support of our army is under the unified leadership of the General Armament Department, each military region and each service and arm are indeed responsible for their own equipment maintenance support, and there is no effective contact with other services and forces, making integrated support difficult. Due to the increasing versatility of many components, these components can be used in various equipment. For the complex and changeable battlefield environment in the future, the equipment maintenance support system with distinct and systematic services is obviously unable to meet the needs of future wars, which has been confirmed by the majority of users

4 countermeasures and suggestions

the market economic system of the United States, Russia, Russia, Japan and other countries has been relatively perfect, and their national conditions and military conditions are very different from ours, so it is not feasible to completely copy their models. On the basis of selectively absorbing the advanced factors of foreign forces, we should improve the laws and regulations that are suitable for our country, and provide legal and regulatory basis for the maintenance and support of military civilian integrated equipment

for example, France stipulates that the army can use local ships in War: the law of the United States also stipulates that local maintenance companies can undertake the maintenance and support tasks of the army

in order to further hide the secgui wall bought by Xiaoze, foreign troops have also revised relevant military standards to make them consistent with civilian standards as much as possible. For example, in recent years, the United States has reviewed more than 350000 military standards, of which more than 140000 will be replaced by commercial standards

4.2 unified command and leadership organization

in the integrated equipment maintenance support implemented by foreign forces, A unified and coordinated command and leadership organization has been established [41. In equipment maintenance support, market competition mechanism should be introduced, and macro-control should be strengthened at the same time, so that the military civilian integrated equipment maintenance support can be live without chaos. A unified and coordinated command and leadership organization can control and support all work of equipment maintenance from the top level, keep it under the control of leaders at all times, and maintain the core maintenance support ability of the army.

4.3 establish long-term cooperation with local companies Foreign troops attach great importance to establishing long-term cooperative relations with local companies, because in this way, they can obtain their own interests and needs in both the military and local areas. In order to achieve this goal, we can usually use the following methods:

first, sign a relatively long-term contract. In this way, we can not only reduce the redundant costs caused by frequent contract changes, but also invest more human and material resources in enhancing competitiveness:

Second, local companies must have good performance and effectively serve the needs of the Army:

Third, we should reward those excellent local enterprises to continuously improve their efficiency:

Fourth, we should always know the strength of local companies, Change the terms and requirements at the necessary time to optimize the overall support capacity:

fifth, strictly control the cost

5 conclusion

equipment military civilian integration joint maintenance support plays an important role and significance for foreign forces. Through the comparative analysis of domestic and foreign military equipment maintenance support systems, this paper finds out the existing shortcomings of our army in this field, and puts forward corresponding improvement countermeasures and suggestions, which has a certain reference value for the future joint maintenance support system

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